For a long time in France it was more a question of a trial of strength than of dialogue and consultation. However, lobbying became recognised as a real profession more than 25 years ago.
The building of Europe, which, from the outset, opened up to economic interests and to associations, contributed to its recognition.
It gained its credibility in France: the ENA, the Instituts d’Etudes Politiques, business schools and universities integrated lobbying into their programmes and many students are keen to join the profession. Programmes about lobbying are broadcasted on the radio and television. And more widely, politicians and administrations view the intervention of professionals who understand their needs and the workings of public decision making in a favourable light.